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La Victoire de Samothrace, Unknown, 190 BC

The Gothic Nave

Notre Dame

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Building a cathedral was an extremely complex and costly task.

As mentioned, Notre Dame took 200 years to complete.

One of the most complex parts of the construction was the nave.

The word nave comes from the Latin for "ship".

The word comes from the fact that the Church saw it as its role to help steer the congregation to salvation.

While architects had known for centuries how to build rudimentary arched ceilings, these were very weak structures.

The walls needed to be extra thick to withstand the pressure, as the ceiling pushed downwards and the supporting walls pushed outwards.

This meant that arched buildings were extremely low and dark, as any window would have weakened the strength of the walls.

In the 11th century, architects discovered a new technique, the rib vault, created by intersecting 2-3 arches.

With this system, pressure was diverted to the 4 supporting pillars and not the walls themselves.

Another system, flying buttresses - stone arcs connecting the nave to the outside walls - helped to relieve the pressure.

As walls became more stable, architects could build them higher and thinner and start to include massive stained glass windows, lighting up the cathedrals.

Creating stained glass was an extremely complex process - and could cost as much as two thirds of the cathedral's total budget.

Glassmakers would melt sand and add special metals to it while in fusion in order to color it - cobalt for blue, copper for red, manganese for yellow...

They would make large sheets, approximately 30cm wide.

These would then be sent off to the stained glass artists, who would chip off bits of them and assemble them to form the windows.

Notre Dame's roses are more than 10m in diameter.

The largest one was a gift from king Saint Louis.

It represents 84 scenes, over 4 concentric circles, with martyred saints such as Saint Denis or Saint Blandine, and scenes from the Bible, such as the Exodus.

The smaller rose represents the Virgin Mary, the 12 tribes of Israel, the virtues and vices, and the twelve months of the year.

La Joconde, de Vinci (1519)

Next:

The Relics

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