Like Cezanne, Van Gogh brought an explosive intensity to 19th century art.
He created more than 2,000 paintings in his lifetime, worth millions today.
However he died penniless and depressed at the age of 37.
His early paintings, which he painted in his native Netherlands, are surprisingly dark.
However he then moved to Paris, where he discovered the works of Cezanne, Seurat, Gauguin and other post-Impressionists... a world full of bold and wild colours, emancipated from reality.
Disappointed with Paris, Van Gogh then moved to Arles, in the south of France and began one of the most prolific periods in his career.
He painted unique, delirious landscapes in aggressive yellows and ultramarines - most of which are immediately recognisable as Van Gogh's today.
While in Arles, he rented 4 rooms in a small yellow house - his bedroom is represented here.
By this time, Van Gogh had developed an intense and explosive friendship with a fellow artist, Gauguin, whom he finally convinced to come visit him in Arles in 1888.
The door at the left of the painting leads into the room where Gauguin stayed while living with Van Gogh.
However the relationship was extremely toxic, and culminated with Van Gogh slicing off his own ear during an argument and being taken to two mental institutions, where he shot himself a year later.